Authorship and Publication Ethics
Authorship Criteria and Guidelines
Learn about criteria for authorship, contributors, and more.
Originality and Copyrighted Material
Research and Publication Ethics
Authorship Criteria and Guidelines
Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Allowing one’s name to appear as an author without having contributed significantly to the study or adding the name of an individual who has not contributed or who has not agreed to the work in its current form is considered a breach of appropriate authorship.
For More InformationSee the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) statement on Sponsorship, Authorship, and Accountability.
Please note: In the event that a group/consortium has more authors than can be listed in the byline, the first 8 authors, the last author, and the group/consortium will be listed in the byline, with a footnote directing the reader to a listing of additional collaborators; these additional authors will be listed as “Collaborators” before the listing of contributors in an acknowledgment.
Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will be made via an erratum.
Originality and Copyrighted Material
Authors should ensure they have written entirely original works. If the authors have used the work and/or words of others, then authors should ensure this has been appropriately cited or quoted.This policy is meant to apply to all types of previously published materials, including conference proceedings and book chapters that have been offered for public sale. It does not necessarily apply to manuscripts that previously have been abstracted for proceedings of a conference or by a dissertation/thesis abstracting service. It also may not apply to duplications or revisions of work previously published in a form such as a university or government report that has limited circulation or availability, whether in print or online (e.g., working papers disseminated primarily among colleagues at the same institution).
In addition, authors should ensure they have written entirely original works. If the authors have used the work and/or words of others, then authors should ensure this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
In some unclear cases, a decision must be made to determine whether a manuscript represents original or duplicate work. This decision always rests with the editor of the ASHA journal, who may consult with the chair of ASHA’s Journals Board as part of the decision process.
Seeking Permission for Copyrighted Material
- You copied and pasted (or otherwise reproduced) text or images from anywhere online into your manuscript.
- You copied and pasted (or otherwise reproduced) text or images from a computer software program/app into your manuscript.
Never include actual test items in your manuscript unless you have received explicit permission from the publisher to do so.
- You started with text or images from someone else’s work (published or not) and modified it into something new for your manuscript.
- You intend to use text or images from someone else’s work (published or not) in a test or tool you created yourself and plan to publish test items from and/or earn money from sale of the test/tool.
- Your image includes someone’s face. (If the person in the picture is a minor, the parent or guardian’s consent must be uploaded.)
These guidelines are especially true for material that is part of an assessment/diagnostic instrument. Never include actual test items in your manuscript unless you have received explicit permission from the publisher to do so.
Seek written permission for publication by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) in all forms (i.e., both print and electronic) and all languages, every time you use or adapt any text or images that are not your (or a co-author’s) original work. Authors are responsible for paying any fees requested from copyright holders to grant the reprint or adaptation.
Evidence of permission for direct re-use or adaptation must be uploaded along with your manuscript files upon submission.
Include all necessary credit lines in your manuscript before submitting via ScholarOne Manuscripts. Full credit to the original publication must be included in the legend of the figure or footnote to the table. Credit lines for quoted materials may be inserted on the page where the borrowed material appears, or they may all be grouped together in the front matter of the book. In granting the permission, the copyright holder may specify the form or the location of the credit line, or both.
Provide all letters granting permission at the time of submission of the manuscript. Evidence of permission for direct re-use or adaptation—or formal notification that permission is not needed—must be uploaded along with your manuscript files upon submission. If a permissions issue is discovered after you submit your manuscript via ScholarOne Manuscripts, peer review will be delayed. If your manuscript is accepted, there will be production delays upon discovering a permissions issue.
If copyright infringement is discovered after publication, your article will be retracted immediately and you (and ASHA, as the publisher) may be subject to legal action by the infringed party.
Authors must affirm, at submission, that they recognize they will liable for any claims or penalties resulting from the unauthorized publication of copyrighted material.
If no fair use policy can be found, assume that permission must be obtained.
If you have read through a license that you believe grants your use of the content without a formal request, upload a copy of that license during submission of your manuscript files. If you paid an artist to create images, upload a copy of the signed agreement for use from the artist.
Many publishers post their “fair use” policies. These indicate the extent of their content in any given article that can be used without permission. If no fair use policy can be found, assume that permission must be obtained.
Get permission for using ASHA materials such as content from the ASHA Journals, the ASHA website, and content from other publishers from Copyright Clearance Center.
Authors should be aware that they retain many rights for noncommercial use of the material. Express permission for use is required only in circumstances stipulated on the copyright transfer agreement. See our Sharing and Using Your Research page for more details
To request permission to use material from articles in ASHA journals, submit a request to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Research and Publication Ethics
All research to be submitted for publication in ASHA journals in which humans or animals are used must adhere to the basic ethical considerations for the protection of research subjects. ASHA requires every research article submitted to include a statement that the study obtained ethics approval (or a statement that it was not required), including the name of the ethics committee(s) or institutional review board(s), the number/ID of the approval(s), and a statement that participants gave informed consent before taking part.
When reporting research involving human data, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki for experiments involving humans. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed. Non-essential identifying details should be omitted. If there is any doubt that anonymity can be maintained, then informed consent should be obtained before manuscript submission.
When publishing identifiable images, or video and audio recordings, from human research participants in ASHA journals, authors include a statement in the published paper affirming that they have obtained informed consent for publication of the images and/or recordings. All reasonable measures must be taken to protect patient anonymity. Black bars over the eyes are not acceptable means of anonymization. In certain cases, ASHA may insist upon obtaining evidence of informed consent from authors. Images and recordings without appropriate consent will be removed from publication.
All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiment, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals. The authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.
If the concern appears to have substance, the first author’s home institution will be contacted by the ASHA Journals Board, and the institution’s appropriate research integrity officer will be notified of the concerns. The adjudication of the case, then, will be left to the home institution.
In referring the concern to the home institution, the ASHA Journals Board will request that it be notified of the outcome of any investigation or adjudication. The Journals Board will then determine procedures for dealing with the manuscript in question (issues such as withdrawal, removal from the website, corrections in the form of errata, etc.).
If the Author is an ASHA Member
If an editor suspects scientific misconduct, the editor will consult with the editor in chief to bring the concern to the Journals Board. Upon review, the Journals Board may then file a formal complaint with the ASHA Board of Ethics.
Upon resolution of the case, the ASHA Board of Ethics will inform the Journals Board of the outcome. The Journals Board will determine procedures for dealing with the manuscript in question (issues such as withdrawal, removal from the website, corrections in the form of errata, etc.).
As part of the manuscript submission process, authors are required to disclose any real or potential conflicts of interest that could be seen as having an influence on the research (e.g., financial interests in a test or procedure, or funding by an equipment or materials manufacturer for efficacy research).
Sources of outside support for research, including funding, equipment, and supplies, must be named during the submission process (and questions to that effect will be presented online to authors as part of the article submission process). In addition, authors must disclose any financial or other nonprofessional benefit(s) that might result from the publication of the manuscript and that reviewers or readers might consider to have affected the conduct or reporting of the work.
If the author is uncertain about what might be considered a conflict of interest, he or she should err on the side of full disclosure by reporting the potential conflict when requested to do so during submission. Information about conflicts of interest may be made available to reviewers at the editor’s discretion. The role(s) of the support organization, if any, in the collection of data, in its analysis and interpretation, and in the right to approve or disapprove publication of the finished manuscript also must be detailed during the submission process. If a support agency claims the right to approve/disapprove publication, the author should have completed this process by the time of manuscript submission.
If, in the editor’s judgment, the author has a real or potential conflict of interest, that conflict must be acknowledged with a disclosure statement on the first page of the article. Authors will be informed of this decision before acceptance.