Authorship and Publication Ethics

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Authorship Criteria and Guidelines

Naming authors on a scientific paper ensures that the appropriate individuals get credit, and are accountable, for the research. Each author listed in the byline has made substantial contributions to (1) the conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and/or (3) vetting and/or approving the final version to be published.

Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Allowing one’s name to appear as an author without having contributed significantly to the study or adding the name of an individual who has not contributed or who has not agreed to the work in its current form is considered a breach of appropriate authorship.

For More Information
See the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) statement on Sponsorship, Authorship, and Accountability.
While it is possible to name two first authors, one author must be designated as the corresponding author when submitting an article. The corresponding author is the one individual who takes primary responsibility for communication with the journal during the manuscript submission, peer review, and publication process, and typically ensures that all the journal’s administrative requirements, such as providing details of authorship and ensuring that any necessary disclosures (e.g., conflict of interest) are properly made, although these duties may be delegated to one or more coauthors. The corresponding author should be available throughout the submission and peer review process to respond to editorial queries in a timely way, and should be available after publication to respond to critiques of the work and cooperate with any requests from the journal for data or additional information should questions about the paper arise after publication. Although the corresponding author has primary responsibility for correspondence with the journal, ASHA recommends that editors send copies of all correspondence to all listed authors.
Contributors who do not meet all 3 of the criteria in the authorship overview should not be listed as authors and are not required to complete the copyright and disclosure forms required of authors, but they should be acknowledged. ASHA journals list contributors in the Acknowledgements section at the end of the article (before the References). Those whose contributions do not justify authorship may be acknowledged individually or together as a group under a single heading, giving details of their contributions in planning, conducting, and reporting the work. The individuals who conducted the work must determine among themselves the precise nature of each person’s contribution. ASHA encourages open discussion among all participants.
For articles on which a large, multicenter group or consortium is listed as an author, the corresponding author is obligated to identify all individuals in the group/consortium who accept direct responsibility for the work. These individuals must fully meet the aforementioned criteria for authorship and will be required to complete the same copyright and disclosure forms as any other authors published in the ASHA journals. Any members of groups/consortia who do not meet the authorship criteria must be identified by name and affiliation and be listed as “Contributors” in an acknowledgment section that also identifies their role in the work (whether by functional role or by center affiliation as appropriate). Contributors are not required to complete the copyright and disclosure forms required of authors.

Please note: In the event that a group/consortium has more authors than can be listed in the byline, the first 8 authors, the last author, and the group/consortium will be listed in the byline, with a footnote directing the reader to a listing of additional collaborators; these additional authors will be listed as “Collaborators” before the listing of contributors in an acknowledgment.

Authors are expected to consider carefully the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript and provide the definitive list of authors at the time of the original submission. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted and only if approved by the journal Editor. To request such a change, the Editor must receive the following from the corresponding author: (a) the reason for the change in author list and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed.

Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any requests approved by the Editor will be made via an erratum.

Originality and Copyrighted Material

ASHA journals do not consider for review submissions that have been published in the same, or essentially the same, form elsewhere. Authors who are modifying or extending work that has previously been published must notify the editor of the possible previous publication of their submission and provide a rationale for considering the new work to be substantially different from the original. They must also clearly acknowledge these prior publications in their manuscript.

Authors should ensure they have written entirely original works. If the authors have used the work and/or words of others, then authors should ensure this has been appropriately cited or quoted.
This policy is meant to apply to all types of previously published materials, including conference proceedings and book chapters that have been offered for public sale. It does not necessarily apply to manuscripts that previously have been abstracted for proceedings of a conference or by a dissertation/thesis abstracting service. It also may not apply to duplications or revisions of work previously published in a form such as a university or government report that has limited circulation or availability, whether in print or online (e.g., working papers disseminated primarily among colleagues at the same institution).

In addition, authors should ensure they have written entirely original works. If the authors have used the work and/or words of others, then authors should ensure this has been appropriately cited or quoted.

In some unclear cases, a decision must be made to determine whether a manuscript represents original or duplicate work. This decision always rests with the editor of the ASHA journal, who may consult with the chair of ASHA’s Journals Board as part of the decision process.

Although the ASHA Journals Board recognizes certain advantages in publishing select articles in languages other than English, such projects are time and cost prohibitive due to the amount of human and financial resources required to do them well. Consequently, the Journas Board policy is to publish articles in its four scholarly journals in English only. However, if an editor considers an article important enough, and also considers the original publication obscure enough that broad dissemination was not possible, an article can be republished in an ASHA journal. This has occurred very rarely. Such an article must clearly reference the original and include all necessary disclosures to indicate that the article is a republished translation; publication is, of course, also contingent on permission from the original authors and the copyright holder, for all uses (both print and online). 
Occasionally, individuals request permission to translate and distribute articles (or portions of articles) from ASHA journals. ASHA grants such permissions on a case-by-case basis. Certain conditions must apply to all approved cases, however. This includes permission of the authors and of the ASHA Publications Office. In addition, the individual or institution requesting permission must satisfy the ASHA Publications Office that the translator is well qualified to perform the translation. Finally, the following statement must appear in boldface on the front page of the document: Neither the authors nor ASHA were involved in the translation of this article from English. Neither the authors nor ASHA assume any responsibility for the accuracy of this translation. 
Manuscripts submitted to ASHA journals are expected to represent new, original work. If a manuscript contains plagiarism of another’s work or self-plagiarism of one’s own previously published work, it is subject to immediate rejection by the editor. For information on how to avoid plagiarism and self-plagiarism, authors are referred to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), which notes that “plagiarism refers to the practice of claiming credit for the words, ideas, and concepts of others” (p. 170) and that “self-plagiarism refers to the practice of presenting one’s own previously published work as though it were new” (p. 170). Plagiarism and self-plagiarism are considered violations of ASHA’s Code of Ethics. The content could also be subject to assessment via plagiarism detection software to detect overlap with previously published work. 
Quick Resources

For any questions about whether your work is eligible for submission, contact journals@asha.org.

To seek permission to translate an article, contact permissions@asha.org

Seeking Permission for Copyrighted Material

Always seek permission from the copyright holder, who is usually the publisher and not the author, if:

  • You copied and pasted (or otherwise reproduced) text or images from anywhere online into your manuscript.
  • You copied and pasted (or otherwise reproduced) text or images from a computer software program/app into your manuscript.
    Never include actual test items in your manuscript unless you have received explicit permission from the publisher to do so.
  • You started with text or images from someone else’s work (published or not) and modified it into something new for your manuscript.
  • You intend to use text or images from someone else’s work (published or not) in a test or tool you created yourself and plan to publish test items from and/or earn money from sale of the test/tool.
  • Your image includes someone’s face. (If the person in the picture is a minor, the parent or guardian’s consent must be uploaded.)

These guidelines are especially true for material that is part of an assessment/diagnostic instrument. Never include actual test items in your manuscript unless you have received explicit permission from the publisher to do so.

If a figure or a table is the copyrighted work of another individual or organization, or if extensive material is quoted, the author must obtain written permission from the copyright holder (usually the publisher, not the author, of the original work) to reprint it.

Seek written permission for publication by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) in all forms (i.e., both print and electronic) and all languages, every time you use or adapt any text or images that are not your (or a co-author’s) original work. Authors are responsible for paying any fees requested from copyright holders to grant the reprint or adaptation.

Evidence of permission for direct re-use or adaptation must be uploaded along with your manuscript files upon submission.

Include all necessary credit lines in your manuscript before submitting via ScholarOne Manuscripts. Full credit to the original publication must be included in the legend of the figure or footnote to the table. Credit lines for quoted materials may be inserted on the page where the borrowed material appears, or they may all be grouped together in the front matter of the book. In granting the permission, the copyright holder may specify the form or the location of the credit line, or both.

Provide all letters granting permission at the time of submission of the manuscript. Evidence of permission for direct re-use or adaptation—or formal notification that permission is not needed—must be uploaded along with your manuscript files upon submission. If a permissions issue is discovered after you submit your manuscript via ScholarOne Manuscripts, peer review will be delayed. If your manuscript is accepted, there will be production delays upon discovering a permissions issue.

If copyright infringement is discovered after publication, your article will be retracted immediately and you (and ASHA, as the publisher) may be subject to legal action by the infringed party.

Authors must affirm, at submission, that they recognize they will liable for any claims or penalties resulting from the unauthorized publication of copyrighted material.

Please note that online searches for public domain content are not necessarily reliable. You must do your due diligence to ascertain that the material you intend to use is actually in the public domain. In the absence of clear notation to that effect on the material (either via a caption or license), consider such material not to be in the public domain.
If no fair use policy can be found, assume that permission must be obtained.

If you have read through a license that you believe grants your use of the content without a formal request, upload a copy of that license during submission of your manuscript files. If you paid an artist to create images, upload a copy of the signed agreement for use from the artist.

Many publishers post their “fair use” policies. These indicate the extent of their content in any given article that can be used without permission. If no fair use policy can be found, assume that permission must be obtained.

Get permission for using ASHA materials such as content from the ASHA Journals, the ASHA website, and content from other publishers from Copyright Clearance Center.

Authors should be aware that they retain many rights for noncommercial use of the material. Express permission for use is required only in circumstances stipulated on the copyright transfer agreement. See our Sharing and Using Your Research page for more details


Quick Resources

To request permission to use material from articles in ASHA journals, submit a request to the Copyright Clearance Center.

Research and Publication Ethics

ASHA expects of its members high standards of ethical conduct in all professional activities. In addition to the ASHA Code of Ethics, ASHA has issued practice policy documents to clarify ethical issues related to research and scholarly activities. Authors, particularly those who are ASHA members, are encouraged to review these documents and apply them to their research and scholarly endeavors. In addition, the following policies and their associated resources apply to the publication of research in ASHA journals. 
Using Human and Animals in Research

All research to be submitted for publication in ASHA journals in which humans or animals are used must adhere to the basic ethical considerations for the protection of research subjects. ASHA requires every research article submitted to include a statement that the study obtained ethics approval (or a statement that it was not required), including the name of the ethics committee(s) or institutional review board(s), the number/ID of the approval(s), and a statement that participants gave informed consent before taking part.

When reporting research involving human data, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki for experiments involving humans. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed. Non-essential identifying details should be omitted. If there is any doubt that anonymity can be maintained, then informed consent should be obtained before manuscript submission.

When publishing identifiable images, or video and audio recordings, from human research participants in ASHA journals, authors include a statement in the published paper affirming that they have obtained informed consent for publication of the images and/or recordings. All reasonable measures must be taken to protect patient anonymity. Black bars over the eyes are not acceptable means of anonymization.  In certain cases, ASHA may insist upon obtaining evidence of informed consent from authors. Images and recordings without appropriate consent will be removed from publication.

All animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and should be carried out in accordance with the U.K. Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986 and associated guidelines, EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiment, or the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals. The authors should clearly indicate in the manuscript that such guidelines have been followed.

If an editor suspects scientific misconduct, the editor will bring the concern to the editor in chief, who will then consult with the Journals Board. If it is determined that the author is not an ASHA member or certificate holder, the editor in chief will bring the concern to a research ethics screening subcommittee. This subcommittee will have as members the editor (who will serve as chair) and two members of the Journals Board, including one with expertise in the content area of the manuscript in question. In addition, the ASHA Chief Staff Officer for Science and Research will serve as an ex officio member. The charge to the screening subcommittee will be to determine whether the concerns have substantive merit and whether the potential for scientific misconduct is apparent.

If the concern appears to have substance, the first author’s home institution will be contacted by the ASHA Journals Board, and the institution’s appropriate research integrity officer will be notified of the concerns. The adjudication of the case, then, will be left to the home institution.

In referring the concern to the home institution, the ASHA Journals Board will request that it be notified of the outcome of any investigation or adjudication. The Journals Board will then determine procedures for dealing with the manuscript in question (issues such as withdrawal, removal from the website, corrections in the form of errata, etc.).


If the Author is an ASHA Member

If an editor suspects scientific misconduct, the editor will consult with the editor in chief to bring the concern to the Journals Board. Upon review, the Journals Board may then file a formal complaint with the ASHA Board of Ethics.

Upon resolution of the case, the ASHA Board of Ethics will inform the Journals Board of the outcome. The Journals Board will determine procedures for dealing with the manuscript in question (issues such as withdrawal, removal from the website, corrections in the form of errata, etc.).

Please see the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ statement on protection of research participants for information on protecting identifying information and seeking consent from study participants.